Moral judgments and behaviors are highly sensitive to culture. The understanding and construction of exactly the same moral issues can vary substantially between people who come from different cultural backgrounds or have different levels of multicultural experiences. As human beings, our behaviors are guided in part by a set of social norms about morality that form a basic and important part of our culture. Morality refers to a belief system about what is right and good compared to what is wrong or wrong.
Morals vary dramatically across time, place, and cultures. There is a wide cultural variation in morality, and social norms relate to a wide variety of behaviors. Some cultures condone polygamy and homosexuality, while others do not. In some cultures, it's appropriate for men and women to be held to different standards, while in other cultures, this is considered wrong.
Even things that seem completely normal to us in the West, such as dancing, eating beef and allowing men to cook for women, are considered immoral in other cultures.
Moralsare maintained and accepted by all members of the culture. In most cases, morality is defended through norms, laws and other types of sanctions for its transgression. We reward people who express our preferred morality, for example, in the form of prizes, honors and awards, and we punish those who violate our moral norms.
We generally attribute positive evaluations to people we consider moral (for example,. Kohlberg's vision predominated over the past few decades, but recent theoretical developments in social and cultural psychology (Shweder et al. From that point of view, the relevant internal mechanisms are adaptations and the products of natural selection. Thus, rudimentary moral intuitions, such as aversion to harm and reciprocity, date back to the beginning of human history.
Morality evolved long before the rise of our species and fulfils the adaptive function of facilitating cooperation within groups and against enemies. In fact, this evolutionary framework focuses on motivational orientations rooted in evolved unconscious emotional systems developed by experiences that predispose someone to react to an act or events in a particular way. It is suggested that the evolutionary adaptations of species seem to regulate behaviors and promote individual well-being. As such, an individual's moral principles are relative to the culture to which they belong.
According to cultures, the notions of good and evil are defined differently and lead to different values and principles. The same action could well be considered a serious moral transgression in some cultures and a simple social crime in others (Shweder et al. From this perspective, morality extends beyond intercultural differences. Every society has a moral system that depends on its beliefs, ideologies and views of the world (Jensen, 2011).
The history of societies has demonstrated, for example, that some perceive divorce, induced abortion or, more recently, same-sex marriages as a direct violation of morality and, therefore, should be avoided at all costs. Therefore, not everyone has the same idea of the areas to which morality can be applied (Skitka et al. Haidt (200) suggests the term “moral community” to characterize each group that shares the same values and moral norms; these groups also share the same ideas about how to enforce them. Ethical standards are the standards in our environment that are acceptable to most people.
In the Western world, these norms are largely based on Judeo-Christian principles, generally referred to as customs, ethical norms are what most people accept as good and the way in which they behave without imposed rules or regulations. Within our social structure, sanctions are often imposed on those who do not follow ethical standards, and laws dictate the consequences for those found guilty of unethical behavior. And if this is how the culture of the school community can be shaped, there is reason to expect that it will influence young people in ways that will endure even in the face of a broader culture that is at odds with the school-based attitudes and attitudes they are acquiring. In fact, reasoning allows people to mobilize moral principles that can be used to override moral intuitions.
As such, the core of culture is based on the presence of large-scale justification systems to coordinate and justify the opinions and behaviors of human morals. A meta-analysis of 45 cross-cultural studies in 27 countries (Snarey, 198) examined the universal affirmation of Kohlberg's theory. In other words, much of what I intend to say here does not require resolving it, even provisionally, for reasons of a morally desirable or appropriate nature. In the United States, on the other hand, moral judgments are based on more liberal social rules, based on individual rights, justice, and the principle of avoiding harm.
Emotion is linked to environmental conditions; therefore, it can create a moral judgment as a result of a motivational process, such as values, beliefs, needs and objectives (Blasi, 199.Societies have a unique and universal moral competence that arises from underlying, underlying and unconscious cognitive processes). It's not enough to follow intuitions and emotions; that's why moral reasoning is important, especially in social contexts. Emotions amplify moral judgment, and every society expresses emotions differently depending on the moral concern in question. To close this gap, Mikhail (200) developed a model that describes the different mental processes that drive all moral intuitions.
Morality plays a fundamental role in the functioning of any human society by regulating social interactions and behaviors. These influences don't have much value as long as they are inconsistent with the moral messages that the cultural environment communicates in a strong and continuous way. Empirical facts reveal the limits of traditional rationalist theories, which give reasoning a predominant role in moral judgment. On the other hand, compared to the second version, 11% of the subjects considered it morally acceptable to push the pedestrian onto the road.
This article argues that, while this community responsibility cannot be adequately fulfilled through special-purpose institutions, such as schools, such institutions, if properly considered, can play an important role in the process of moral growth. .